Pokeweed, American (Phytolacca americana): The Jekyll and Hyde Plant

If a nice-looking plant could attract scads of birds, make a great mess of greens, treat cancer, AIDS, herpes, bad breath and more, and revolutionize the solar energy industry on the side, wouldn’t you want it in your backyard?

All of these claims and more have been made for the American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana), an imposing perennial common in disturbed, fallow and edge areas, routinely growing taller than 6-8 feet, with large, oblong leaves and reddish stems at maturity.  It’s also known as poke root, poke salad (or poke sallet), poke berry, poke, inkberry, cancer root, American nightshade, pigeon berry and other names. The starring feature of Pokeweed is the flower cluster, which can host flowers, immature green berries and mature, shiny red berries all on the same clump, and there are many clumps per plant, flowering from May on into the fall.  It dies back to its very large taproot each winter and re-emerges each spring.  It is very insistent about that.

American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)

American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana)

With all this going for it, what’s not to like?  Well, for one thing, it’s poisonous.  For another, it’s persistent and somewhat aggressive and difficult to eradicate.  Pokeweed has its passionate defenders, implacable enemies, and some in between, who might wish it wasn’t there, but have no qualms about using it for its good qualities.  We have several healthy specimens in our yard, mostly around the edges in the fence or up against the house, and we appreciate it because birds find it irresistible.  We never planted it.  It showed up on its own, probably from the hard little seeds passing through a bird and being deposited with a handy little packet of fertilizer.  It seems to generate a couple more plants each year, and we will soon have to control its spread.  We pull it or chop it in places where we don’t want it, but this might be only semi-effective, since it will try to come back from the root each spring.  There are chemical treatments, if you’re really desperate, including glyphosate.  At least one online gardeners’ forum has had a lively debate on the merits of this plant in gardens and its control.

Pokeweed is one of the signature edible native plants of America, with a strong role in Native-American, African-American and Southern cultures and cuisines.  The key is caution.  Young leaves and stems in the spring, before any red has crept into them, are harvested by legions of foragers and boiled in at least two changes of water, discarding the water afterwards.  Some, in Southern style, saute the greens with bacon drippings and crumbles, alone or mixed with other wild greens.  Some also cook the young stems like asparagus, to which their flavor is compared, or cut them into rounds, like okra, coating them with cornmeal and frying them.  Some just saute them in butter, with salt and pepper.  They are sometimes used in making pickles.  Just remember to blanch them in water first!  Twice!

Never eat the roots!  Never.  Too bad, too, because they’re big and juicy.

The toxins in Pokeweed, depending on what source you’re working from, range from deadly to mild.  They are usually concentrated in the roots, berries and seeds and include an alkaloid (phytolaccine), a resin (phytolaccatoxin), and a saponin (phytolaccigenin). Their effects can range from embarrassing to very nasty, including diarrhea, vomiting, internal bleeding, rapid heartbeat, convulsions, and much more, up to and including death.  Blanching in changes of water eliminates most of the toxins from young leaves and stems, but caution is called for.  Also, since the berries are a very tempting looking bright red, you might want to think twice about having this plant in places frequented by young children, because I remember what I was like as a kid.

Flowers, immature and mature berries on one cluster

Flowers, immature and mature berries on one cluster

Pokeweed berries

Tempting looking pokeberries. Look, but don’t eat! Leave them for the birds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aside from its decorative and culinary qualities , Pokeweed is useful for establishing quail habitat, since quail love the berries (birds are not affected by the toxins), and it also forms a nice shady refuge for them.  It is good for attracting pollinating insects to gardens.

Pollinator fly on Pokeweed flower

Syrphid fly on Pokeweed flower

It has been used for inks and dyes (here’s how you can make your own!), making a beautiful red color, and is being studied for potential treatments for cancer and various viral diseases, among other ailments.  Some folks still swear by eating a small number of berries to prevent arthritis, but you didn’t hear that from me.   Keep in mind that online sources of medical information often urge strong caution in using Pokeweed medicinally, or simply say “Don’t do it.”

It has even inspired a song or two along the way.  Who could forget Poke Salad Annie?

One of its newest uses is in the field of solar energy generation.  It seems a red dye made from the mature berries can be used to coat fiber-based solar cells, increasing their efficiency in converting sunlight into electricity.  Who knew?

We have it in our yard.  We’re keeping it.  Like all things, it has pluses and minuses, but, on average, we think it’s worthwhile having around.  Our birds agree, and if I ever get the money to put up solar cells on the roof, I’ll be squeezing a bunch of berries and painting the juice on them.  Or however they do that…..

15 Responses to Pokeweed, American (Phytolacca americana): The Jekyll and Hyde Plant

  1. Tom says:

    I loved your narrative about poke weed. It is a much more enjoyable read than most botanical guides.

  2. Steve says:

    Does anyone use extracts from pokeweed as a herbicide to keep other fence-line-growers under control?

    I just noticed that the areas around pokes that grow up along fences are clear of all other weeds.

    • Randy Tindall says:

      Hi Steve. I have never heard of this and neither has Nadia. In our yard we have lots of plants growing around pokeweed, including tomatoes that are producing fruits. I suspect that your pokeweeds might just be outcompeting the other vegetation.

  3. Diane says:

    I’m using boiled poke weed root juice right now on a brown recluse bite. The guy doctors send you to-a preacher, part Cherokee, promises me it will heal it. Vanderbilt gave me steroids and said I’d probably get an infection and plastic surgery… Then charged me a lot of money. Luckily, it’s spring, and I can try poke weed root free.

  4. Chris O'Neill says:

    I wonder what American Pokeweed was doing in the cobbled streets of Dragor? It’s a small harbour town on the Danish coast near to Copenhagen. It was covered in bunches of glossy black berries in August, when I was there on holiday.

    • Randy Tindall says:

      Interesting. A quick Google search turned up Pokeweed self-seeding in Britain. It is listed as naturalized there, species Phytolacca acinosa or Indian Pokeweed. If it’s turned up in England, it’s not too big a stretch to suppose that birds may have spread its seeds to Denmark and elsewhere in northern Europe.

      Thanks for the info and for reading.

      P.S. A little more digging found a reference that this species is listed in Bornholm, Denmark!

  5. kaleb larsen says:

    Phytolacca americana
    not on the List of invasive species in Europe
    Pokeweed is a garden plant in Denmark

    • Randy Tindall says:

      Phytolacca acinosa was the species I found for parts of the UK and Europe. Is American Pokeweed grown in Danish gardens or this other species? Thanks for reading and commenting.

  6. Kat says:

    Sidenote: Can anyone verify that Diane is still alive and kicking? This past summer, my fiance and I lived at a cottage in the Catskills, and our landlords told us the pokeberries were “elderberries.” Luckily, we had the good sense to research the berries first, since my fiance (who’s from England) said they didn’t look anything like the elderberries in England… we were horrified when we found out what it really was, since we’d been harvesting the berries… PLEASE always use caution with this plant!

    • Randy Tindall says:

      Not sure, Kat, since she never came back with an update. Maybe I’ll email her and ask. Recluse bites are generally non-fatal, but can be terribly painful and disfiguring. I am very curious about whether the pokeweed treatment actually helped.

      Thanks for reading and commenting!

      • Randy Tindall says:

        Update: Diane is alive and kicking! Here is her reply about the pokeweed remedy for brown recluse bites. Note that “Nadia’s Backyard” only passes on information—we don’t recommend, endorse, advocate, etc., etc., etc., ANY treatment without checking with your doctor and doing lots of research.

        “Hi! The pokeweed root remedy came from the native Americans. It’s being studied for skin cancer and other poisons.
        One year later exactly from my brown recluse bite, there’s a scar, but doctors cannot believe how it healed. I have specialists and issues; they know me as a hot mess! The little kids I teach always come to see the preserved spider and my arm during science.
        Pokeweed root helped! I never got a big hole or had nasty dr drilling. It got somewhat yucky, but not like so many people’s bites.
        How I did it:
        I did use bentonite clay after I figured out it was a recluse. Didn’t have charcoal.
        I boiled the pokeweed roots after cleaning, soaked gauze in the “juice”, wrapped the swollen parts of my arm in that and wrapped it after I gently scuffed the bite with a soaked cloth. My arm was in a sling prior, because the venom made it look like I had arm measles when moving it. Anyway, the soaked gauze helped with pain. I used this gauze at night for about two weeks, refrigerating the left-overs and making more as needed. During the day, I tried to let it air and had a friend make a special root powder antibiotic type salve. (I’d have to ask for the recipe but remember camphor and goldenseal.) If I had to do it again, I would immediately get charcoal caps emptied into it, take benedryl, then start the process and not even bother with Vanderbilt ER, who was of NO help with their 2 cortisone tablets. For people who don’t know American Pokeweed (we have loads in TN!), you can now get root powder at mountain rose herbs.
        By the way, now is the time of year spiders are out, so be aware!”

  7. Zoe says:

    Are other animals, such as cats, dogs immune to the toxicity of the berries, roots, et al?

    Thanks,

    Zoe

    • Randy Tindall says:

      This is what I found: “Cattle and sheep are the most susceptible species but poisoning occasionally occurs in horses, goats, and pigs. Animals may feed on poke plants, especially in the spring, when the plants are succulent. Where grass is short, the animals may browse so close as to get the top parts of the poke roots. Unless green herbage is very scarce later in the summer, animals will avoid the tops and berries.” Source: http://www.library.illinois.edu/vex/toxic/poke/poke.htm. Here’s another: “Poisonous to: Cats, Dogs, Horses, Cows

      Common signs to watch for:

      Drooling
      Vomiting
      Inappetance/refusal of food
      Diarrhea
      Possible tremors
      Hypotension

      All parts of this perennial contain saponins and oxalates which cause severe gastrointestinal irritation. Excessive salivation, vomiting, inappetance/refusal of food, diarrhea, possible tremors, and a drop in blood pressure may occur. The berries are generally not known for being very poisonous, and often may pass through the gastrointestinal tract intact (without being broken down).” Source: http://www.petpoisonhelpline.com/poison/pokeweed/

      So the answer is no, they are not immune. I can’t imagine a dog or cat eating pokeweed, but you never know! Thanks for reading!

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